278- YOU WHO BELIEVE, GUARD YOURSELVES FROM ALLAH’S DISPLEASURE, AND LEAVE WHAT IS LEFT OF USURY IF YOU ARE TRULY BELIEVERS.
279- IF YOU DO NOT, THEN BE WARNED ABOUT A WAR WAGED FROM ALLAH AND HIS MESSENGER, BUT IF YOU REPENT, YOU KEEP YOUR CAPITAL. NEITHER YOU DEAL WITH OTHERS UNJUSTLY NOR DEALT WITH UNJUSTLY.
280- AND IF HE (THE BORROWER) IS SUFFERING HARDSHIP, THEN GRANT HIM TIME UNTIL EASIER TIMES. BUT IF YOU GIVE CHARITY, IT IS BETTER FOR YOU, IF YOU TRULY KNOW.
281- AND PROTECT YOURSELVES FROM A DAY WHEN YOU WILL BE RETUNED TO ALLAH, AND EVERY SOUL WILL BE RECOMPENSED IN FULL FOR WHAT IT HAS EARNED, AND YOU WILL NOT BE DEALT WITH UNJUSTLY.
The Ayahs about Usury were sent down late in Allah’s messenger’s life, in fact they were the last Ayahs of the Quran to be sent down. The rules concerning usury were of the latest in Islam.
A tribe called Bano Amro from Thaqif lent money to another tribe called Bano Al-Mogirah from Makhzoom. After embracing Islam, Bano Al-Mogirah did not want to pay interest on the money borrow.
As these tribes lived in Makah’s area, Allah’s messenger’s deputy in Makah wrote to Allah’s messenger prayer and peace upon him concerning this dispute. Allah’s messenger prayer and peace upon him sent him these Ayahs in reply.
These Ayahs has rules for those who lent money with usury, also those who lent money without usury.
1- Those who lend money with interest, are forbidden to take this interest.
2- They have the right to be repaid the sum they lent originally in full.
3- If the borrower is in hardship, they should be given more time to repay.
4- It is very righteous to relieve the borrower’s hardship totally by writing off the whole loan as Sadaqah (charity)
Allah’s messenger prayer and peace upon him said: “He who relieves the hardship of a person, Allah will relieve his hardship in this life and in the Hereafter” (M:Zekr;38 & D:Adab; 60 & T:Ber;19 & Ma:Sadaqat;14 & A:2;252)
Allah’s messenger prayer and peace upon him said: “He who would love Allah to shadow him with His shadow, let him grant a person in hardship more time to repay his debt, or relieve him totally (write off the debt)” (Ma:Sadaqat;14)
Allah’s reward for leniency with people in hardship is very generous indeed. Allah’s messenger prayer and peace upon him said: “He who grants a man in hardship more time to repay his debt, he will have the reward of a Sadaqah (charity) of the whole debt for every day until the debt falls due again to be repaid. If he grants him more time to pay, he will have for every day the reward of a Sadaqah twice as much as the debt” (A:5;360)
Allah the Highest promises those who do not stop dealing in usury a war from Allah and His messenger waged against them.
It is clear that any Muslim state should outlaw Usury in all its shapes and forms. Allah the Highest fights the people who practice usury. We notice that:
1- Wealth acquired by usury is deprived of any blessing.
2- Allah the Highest curses any one who deals with the usury transaction: Abd Allah Ibn Masoud, Allah’s messenger’s companion said: “Allah’s messenger prayer and peace upon him cursed he who take usury, he who pays it, the two witnesses, and the one who writes the contract”. (Ma:Tegarat;58)
3- Economies built on usury always go through cycles of growth followed by depression. When the depression sets in an economy, those who can not repay the loan with interest on their businesses and houses suffer a great deal. Their businesses go bankrupt, and houses repossessed by the lenders. Every time they can not pay an installment and the interest is added on to the capital to make their difficulties worse.
Through the Islamic way of partnership, the partners will take the profit and bear the loss, each according to their share in the business. They gain or loose together.
“AND PROTECT YOURSELVES FROM A DAY WHEN YOU WILL BE RETUNED TO ALLAH, AND EVERY SOUL WILL BE RECOMPENSED IN FULL FOR WHAT IT HAS EARNED, AND YOU WILL NOT BE DEALT WITH UNJUSTLY”
At the end of the Ayahs concerning usury, Allah the Highest reminds us of the Day of Judgment. It is the day when each and every one of us will have to stand alone before our Maker, and face our deeds, and the consequent reward or punishment. Yet there is also a reassurance of Allah’s justice with us.
The only protection one may have is the belief in Allah the Highest and His messenger prayer and peace upon him, and obeying Allah’s commands, and avoiding His prohibitions.
Ayah 281 has been reported by some scholars to be the last Ayah to have been sent down of the Quran.
B: Bukhari M: Muslim Mal: Malek A: Ahmed D: Abu Dawood
Da: Daremy Ma: Ibn Magah N: Nesae T: Termezi